Trees                [available also in italian]

Pescia, 60 kilometres northwest of Florence, is the most important centre for the cultivation of olives in Italy and
one of the most significant in the world. Its specialised nurseries produce about 60% of the olive trees planted
in Italy which are also exported to some 30 countries. Since 1743 generations of Pescia’s horticulturalists have
developed sophisticated techniques for the propagation of olives as well as setting quality production standards
for nurseries and technicians. One of Pescia's most significant contributions to olive growing dates back to 1995
with the development of Italy's first certified olive tree which was fully guaranteed with regard to its variety and
health and was also virus-free.
A healthy plant, developed to its optimum stage for open planting and of guaranteed variety, ensures rapid growth
and premature production, as well as offering a verifiable product to the market which, of course, translates into
distinct economic advantages. The production of these premium quality, certified olive cultivars is co-ordinated
by CO,RIPR,OL., the Consortium for the Selection and the Control of Material for the Propagation of Olives.
CO,RIPR,OL. is a formal association of 38 of Pescia’s most specialised olive nurseries. The consortium
operates under license to selected academic institutions in Italy according to guidelines established by the
Tuscan Regional Administration. The production of olive materials is controlled by the Italian Ministry of
Agriculture and Forests and supervised by the Italian National Plant Health Service. Registered mother trees in
CO,RIPR.OL.'s high technology Multiplication Centre al San Piero just outside Pescia are used as the source of
cuttings which are distributed to associated nurseries for propagation and growing-on under strict supervision
and control. Each CO,RIPR.OL. certified tree is supplied with a numbered certificate, specifying its variety and
origin. As of 1998 the five classic Tuscan cultivars - world-renowned for the quality and the type of the oil they
produce - are available in certified form. Other popular varieties are being added to the range.

The frantoio

This is a particularly wide-spread oil variety which is appreciated not only in Tuscany and the central zones of
Italy, but throughout the world. The plant is of medium vigour, semi-drooping and with an open structure and
fruiting branches which are long, slender and flexible. The leaves are eliptical-lanceolate shaped, of medium
dimension and glossy dark green.
The drupe is of medium size (between 1.5 and 2.5g.), extended oval in form but with well visible, sparse, whitish
markings, Maturation is late and gradual. When mature the fruit is purple-black, but at the preferred picking time
it is green and purple-green. It is rich in oil (between 17% and 22%) which is very fruity, notably aromatic and of
a high quality.
The tree is self-fertile with a high, constant productivity. It starts setting fruit extremely premature and has an
ovarian abortion rate which rarely exceeds 10%, sometimes being even as low as 1%. The tree’s principal
impollinator is the Pendolino, but the Maurino and the Leccino are also suitable.
While the self-fertile character of the tree guarantees a high and constant fruit production, the presence of an
impollinator further increases production. This peculiar productive characteristic, as well as the quality of its oil,
makes the Frantoio a highly valuable and irreplaceable variety.

The leccino
This plant, which yields a widely diffused variety of oil, is vigorous and tends to be open and semi-pendulous.
The crown is ample and expansive with many small pendulous branches which are curved at the tip. The
leaves are of medium dimension, elliptical-lanceolate in shape and greenish-grey in colour. The underside has
a yellowish hue.
The drupe is of medium size (2 to 2,5g.), ellipsoidal and slightly asymmetrical with a rounded tip and flattened
base. The maturation is premature and simultaneous. The mature fruit is purple-black although it is purple
green at the optimal picking time. It has a variable oil content of between 16% and 21%. The oil is good - mildly
fruity and delicate.
The variety is self-sterile and so needs an impollinator, principally the Pendolino or the Maurino, although the
Frantoio and the Moraiolo are also effective. It has good and constant fruiting. The tree resists low temperatures,
changes in temperature, winds, fog, olive knot, fungus and Peacock Spot.
This is a very rustic variety, widely planted throughout the world. The tree is quick to produce and is highly resistant
to adverse climatic conditions and parasites. More recently it has been used for the production of semi-ripe or
black table olives.

The maurino
The Maurino is a medium-sized, typically Tuscan oil variety. It is of medium vigour and tends to be pendulous,
while the fruiting branches are delicate with upturned tips. The leaves are lanceolate, of medium size and
greyish-green in colour.
The fruit is between 1.5 and 2.5g. in weight, ellipsoidal and slightly asymmetrical in shape and,
when fully mature, purple-black in colour. Fruit maturation is considered to be relatively premature and the oil,
which is highly regarded, is between 17% and 20%, and has a delicate and not overly fruity flavour.
The cultivar is self-sterile, needing an impollinator which can be either the Pendolino, the Leccino, the Frontoio
or the Moraiolo. It has a low ovarian abortion rate, generally under 10%. Fruitinq is good, a1[l]though slightly
alternate, and it has a good resistance to Peacock Spot, cold temperatures, olive knot and fog.
This is an excellent impollinator for the Moraiolo and the Pendolino and can be cultivated in cold, humid zones
which are subject to fog. It is widely appreciated for its ability to produce significant amounts of fertile pol1[l]en
and for its compatibility with a wide range of other olive cultivars.

The moraiolo

This is a tree of medium-to-low vigour with branches which tend to be upturned and widely spread. The crown
is gathered together and has leaves which are elliptical-lanceolate in shape, of medium dimension and
grey-dark green in colour.
The fruit is rather small (1.5 to 2g.), rounded and spheroid in shape. When fully mature it is purple-black in
colour, but at the correct picking time it is generally purple-green. It has a good oil content, on average between
17% and 21%, although this can often be much higher. Fruit maturation is generally premature.
This variety has a relatively high and constant fruit production. If is self-sterile and requires specific impollinators
which are the Pendolino and the Maurino. It is resistant to salty winds.
The Moraiolo is considered a rustic variety and is ideal for planting in hilly zones subject to winds. As a result it
is very diffuse in the major olive growing regions of central Italy. Its oil is highly regarded, generally fruity and
with a slightly bitter aftertaste.

This is a slow growing cultivar of limited development with a very obvious tendency to “weeping”. The crown is
dense and abundant with leaves of medium size which are lanceolate, thin and long and rather dark green-grey
in colour.
The fruit form is ellipsoidal and asymmetrical with a rounded tip and weighs between 1,2 and 2g. It generally
matures simultaneously, although the time of maturation is intermediate in relation to the other Tuscan cultivars.
The drupe, which is black in colour with a pruinose surface, has on oil content of between 22% and 23%. The oil
has a delicate flavour and is pleasant. 
Due to its high and constant pollen production, this variety of oil is considered an ideal impollinator for most
Tuscan oil cultivars. It is self-sterile and prefers the Maurino and the Leccino as impollinators. It has a mild
resistance to cold. Because of its long, flexible branches it is well-suited to manual harvesting. 
This cultivar is widely appreciated by growers for its high fruit production and crucial role as an excellent
impollinator, both for table and oil cultivars.

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